Guava can be propagated by seed, branch cutting, grafting and air layering.
For commercial cultivation, it is best grafted onto a established root-stock.
The guava seedlings grow very fast if proper care is taken
Successful Guava cultivation is grown under tropical and sub-tropical climate.
In areas with distinct winter season, the yield tends to increase and quality improves.
High temperature at the time of fruit development can cause fruit drop.
Guavas can be planted at any time of the year, but the warmer months are better.
Plant them 2 to 3 metres from other trees and 5 metres from other guava trees.
Dig a hole about twice the size of the bag in which the young tree is growing.
Remove the soil from the hole and add some compost and manure.
Guava is mostly grown under rain fed condition.
During winter season, irrigation is provided at an interval of 20-25 days
During summer months it is provided at an interval of 10-15 days by the ring method.
Drip irrigation has proved to be very beneficial for guava.
About 60% of the water used for irrigation is saved.
Besides substantial increase in size and number of fruits is observed.
Guavas prefer regular deep root watering, allow the soil to dry out somewhat between waterings.
Provide regular water during the growing season, and reduce watering during the winter.
Apply water at the base of the tree, avoiding its foliage getting wet to prevent fungal disease.
The older branches of the guava tree produce larger size guava fruit.
So to promote branch growth, the tree must receive regular water
Guava tree is heavy feeder, so it should be fertilized twice an year when it is young; thereafter 3-4 times a year
Time of fertilizer application depends on the region and crop variety.
In first week of July for winter season crop.
The plants are manured twice a year, first during June-July and second by during October.
In case of older plants the fertilizers may be broadcasted over a radius of 120cm from the base and forked in lightly without damaging the roots.
A fertilizer high in potassium is the best fertilizer for guava trees to increase fruit production.
I feed my guava plant with a liquid fertilizer throughout the growing season.
Always water your guava plant after fertilizing to minimize the risk of burns
The guava tree blooms in early spring, but may bloom all year in mild climates.
Guava tree has perfect flowers with male and female parts in each flower.
Honeybees pollinate the guava flowers.
If there are no bees in your area, then you may hand pollinate the flowers.
Use a very small paint brush and tickle the inside of flowers.
Spray your guava tree a 5 % solution of urea mixed with a wetting agent just before flowering.
When the urea spray dries, then water the plant.
This will increase the duration of fruit production.
We need to prune and trim the guava tree regularly to encourage the growth of large, high-quality guava at the edges of the trees.
Normally guava trees has to be trimmed between November and December during winter season and between March and April during spring season.
While pruning the guava tree we should select a single trunk, and 3 to 4 lateral branches and remove all other shoots
Also Prune out crossing and inward-heading branches.
While pruning the guava tree, make sure you cut the lateral branches in an angle so that so water doesn’t stand on it and cause damage to the branches.
After completing pruning for guava tree we can expect guava harvest in the next five months
Prune your guava tree every six months to maintain its symmetry and remove excessive growth.
Also remove Diseased branches and suckers can be removed at any time of year.
Normally weeding has to be done every 3 months in the guava farm so that guava trees maximum nutrients from the soil and the land is clear.
We can use hand labour to do the weeding work. But it will be time consuming and more e time using expensive.
Normally do weeding for 1 acre farm we need at 10 hand labour and it will take at least 7 days to complete the work.
But using mini tractor with rotavator attachment, we can complete the work in 2 days
This rotavator has a series of blades and its cuts, pulverized mixes and level the soil in the farm
This improves the drainage, levels the area and makes the ground perfect for the guava trees.
Also using rotavator will minimize fuel consumption and time duration
Guava tree will take 2-3 years to mature and start to form fruits.
Guava tree at this stage would grow by 5-6 meters high on average, but if properly pruning it does not exceed the height of 3 m.
Guava tree grows with mottled greenish bark and long 3- to 7-inch serrated leaves.
Guava trees produce white, 1-inch flowers that yield to small round, oval or pear shaped fruits.
Guava plants thrive in any soil with good drainage, and full sun for best flowering and fruit production.
Keep the soil evenly moist for best fruit production; allow the top 2 or 3 inches of soil to dry before watering again.
If the soil goes completely dry, flowering may be delayed or fruit may drop. Reduce water in winter.
Guava fruit will be ripe and ready for harvest about 120 and 150 days after pruning the Guava trees, .
In warm year-round locations, guava can produce two crops each year, a large crop in summer followed by a smaller crop in winter.
Ripe guavas will develop mature light green as they ripen;
These fruits cannot be maintained on the tree longer in ripen stage. So, fruit picking should be done, as sooner as they attain maturity.
The changing of the color from green to light yellowish green is an indication of their tender age.
There are several ways to harvest fruits. One can go for manual hand picking of fruits at an interval of few days. Fruit plucking machine is also available in the market to harvest fruits.
The yield of this fruit crop depends on the plant age, soil fertility, soil type, frequency of irrigation, pest and disease control.
Yield is always different from variety to variety.